Sayılabilen ve Sayılamayan İsimler -2
İngilizcede bir çok isim hem sayılabilen hem de sayılamayan isim olarak kullanılabilir. Burada fark oluşturan nokta, anlamdaki farklılıktır.
Aşağıdaki örnekleri inceleyelim:
Noise: Sayılabilen (countable)
Did you hear a noise just now?
(Belirli bir isimden bahsediyor.)
Noise: Sayılamayan (uncountable)
I can't work here. There's too much noise.
I bought a paper to read.
(= a newspaper, gazete)
I need some paper to write on.
(üzerine yazacak birşey)
There's a hair in my soup.
(tek bir saç)
You've got very long hair. ("hairs" değil)
(kafadaki bütün saçlar.)
You can stay with us. There is a spare room.
(evin içinde bir oda)
You can't sit here. There isn't room.
(boş yer yok anlamında.)
I had some interesting experiences while I was away.
(başıma gelen işler)
They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience.
Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time.
I can't wait. I haven't got time.
Coffee / tea / beer / juice gibi içecekler normalde sayılamazlar.
- I don't drink coffee very often.
Fakat, "bir bardak, fincan (a cup / a glass)" olarak düşünürsek sayılabilirler.
- (restoranda) Two coffees and an orange juice, please.
İngilizcede sayılamayan fakat diğer dillerde sayılabilen bazı isimler vardır.
- accommodation, behaviour, damage, luck, permission, traffic, advice, bread, furniture, luggage, progress, weather, baggage, chaos, information, news, scenery, work
Bu isimler genellikle sayılamayan isimlerdir:
Bu kelimelerle birlikte a/an kullanamayız: "a bread", "an advice" söylenmez.
Normalde çoğul olarak da kullanılmazlar: "breads", "advices" söylenmez.
- I'm going to buy some bread. ya da … a lot of bread. ("a bread" değil.)
- Enjoy your holiday! I hope you have good weather. ("a good weather" değil.)
- Where are you going to put all your furniture? ("furnitures" değil.)
News, sayılamayan bir isimdir, çoğul değildir.
- The news was very depressing. ("the news were" değil.)
Travel, genel anlamda seyahat etmek anlamında kullanılır. "a journey" ya da "a trip" anlamında "a travel" şeklinde kullanamayız.
- We had a very good journey. ("a good travel" değil.)
Aşağıdaki sayılabilen ve sayılamayan isimleri inceleyin:
I’m looking for a job.
What a beautiful view!
It’s a nice day today.
We had a lot of bags and cases.
These chairs are mine.
It was a good suggestion.
I'm looking for work. (“a work”değil)
What beautiful scenery!
It's nice weather today.
We had a lot of luggage. (“luggages” değil)
This furniture is mine.
It was good advice.
Aşağıdaki örneklerde sayılabilen ve sayılamayan isimlerin nası kullanıldıklarını inceleyin:
- 1. "Did you hear a noise just now?" "No, I didn't hear anything."
- 2. If you want to know the news, you can read a paper.
I want to write some letters but I haven't got any paper to write on.
- 3. I thought there was somebody in the house because there was a light on inside.
Light comes from the sun.
- 4. I was in a hurry this morning. I didn't have a time for breakfast.
"Did you enjoy your holiday?" "Yes, we had a wonderful time."
- 5. Sue was very helpful. She gave us some very useful advice.
- 6. We had very good weather while we were on holiday.
- 7. We were very unfortunate. We had bad luck.
- 8. It's very difficult to find job at the moment.
- 9. Our journey from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.
- 10. When the fire alarm rang, there was total chaos.
- 11. I had to buy some bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.
- 12. Bad news doesn't make people happy.
- 13. Your hair is too long. You should have it cut.
- 14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but the damage to the car was quite bad.
Aşağıdaki kelimelerin nasıl kullanıldıklarını inceleyelim:
- 1. I didn't have much luggage just two small bags.
- 2. They'll tell you all you want to know. They'll give you plenty of information.
- 3. There is room for everybody to sit down. There are plenty of chairs.
- 4. We have no furniture, not even a bed or a table.
- 5. "What does Alan look like?" "He's got a long beard and very short hair.
- 6. Carla's English is better than it was. She's made progress.
- 7. George is unemployed. He's looking for a job.
- 8. George is unemployed. He's looking for work.
- 9. If you want to leave work early, you have to ask for permission.
- 10. I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got enough experience.
- 11. Rita has done many interesting things. She should write a book about her experiences.